Historical Perspective on Nanoparticles in Imaging from 1895 to 2000

Author(s): Mikhail Y. Berezin
Date of Publication: January 2015

Shortly after World War II in 1946, the U.S. Congress passed the Atomic Energy Act that transferred nuclear weapon development and nuclear power management to civilian, rather than military control. The majority of the efforts were directed toward the discovery of less expensive and more available sources of radioisotopes, the development of imaging instrumentation, and the medical assessment of the techniques. Optical imaging quickly advanced from a preclinical stage to use in clinical applications. Technically, microbubbles are vehicles that exceed the size of nanoparticles with a diameter in the 1–10 μm range. By the middle of the 1970s, liposomes have been the most advanced type of nanoparticles and presented an excellent scaffold for the incorporation of different types of molecules including multiple targeting moieties from small molecules to antibodies. New contrast agents became commercialized and rapidly adopted by clinics, which further accelerated the search for new contrast agents including nanoparticles.

Citation: Berezin, M. Y. (2014) Historical Perspective on Nanoparticles in Imaging from 1895 to 2000, in Nanotechnology for Biomedical Imaging and Diagnostics: From Nanoparticle Design to Clinical Applications (ed M. Y. Berezin), John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
Team(s): Plant Team